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Darwin was not, however, the first person to propose an evolutionary explanation for the diversity of life on earth.
In fact, evolutionary concepts about life date far back into history and arose in many different cultures.
"The Theory of Biological Evolution" is a term used to refer to the proposition that all forms of life on earth are related through common descent, that inheritable traits are passed on from parent organisms to their offspring, that some changes naturally arise when organisms have offspring, and that over time these changes have resulted in the variety of life that we see on earth today.
The Theory of Biological Evolution is most often associated with Charles Darwin, because it was Charles Darwin that proposed the mechanism of natural selection and accompanied that proposition with a large volume of empirical data providing evidence for biological evolution.
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The Greeks developed a concept of evolution over 2,300 years ago that was basically equivalent to that of Charles Darwin's, but the early Christians opposed the idea and destroyed all of the works that promoted it or any other naturalistic explanations for earthly phenomena.
There are literally thousands of different mythological stories about the origin of the world and of life.
It is entirely orientated towards rooted, time-measured phylogenies inferred using strict or relaxed molecular clock models.
It can be used as a method of reconstructing phylogenies but is also a framework for testing evolutionary hypotheses without conditioning on a single tree topology.
An immense amount of geological change has occurred in that timespan, accompanied by the emergence of life and its subsequent evolution.